That's using specific palettes to set a scene. It's done all the time to convey emotion in film and tv. I'm talking about attaching the colors to characters to subconsciously give you a feel for who they are.
i think it's a cool concept. i'm sure it's been done plenty. my only comment is, if you realize it, it's too on-the-nose. if it shapes how the audience perceives the character without being annoyingly obvious, then it's well-done.
Reminds me of the westerns where the good guys wore white hats and the bad guys black. Lone Ranger and a few others took it a step further with white and black horses with average Joe's on chestnut horses and Indians always on painted ponies.
In other words, it's not a new concept, rather it's a modern implementation of the concept. As a device with a larger purpose and done consistently, sure this could be a device that would enhance a story/movie.
I select one show a nite to watch, and am not sure this color palette would matter to me, or if I would even notice. Some of my favorite shows are in black and white. Old shows like Perry Mason, Andy of Mayberry, Leave it to Beaver etc.
I really appreciate all the input here, guys! I'm working out ways to make this work without being overbearing. Something like @brianmk24 said. You don't notice it until it's brought to your attention, or heavily critique it. But when you find it, it makes sense.